Numbers between 1 and 59 were the symbols for 1 and 10 tightly grouped together.
The fear of the power of this empire by Sparta lead to the Peloponnesian War and while Athens was besieged by the enemy outside the walls, a terrible plague raged within.
For about 4500 years it was the tallest building in the world. There is much speculation on exactly how this pyramid and its companions were actually constructed. They used a vertical wedge to represent a unit and a sidewys wedge to represent ten units.
With arrangements of these two symbols they could represnt numbers of any size.
This papyrus was copied by an unknown scribe (around 1850 B. It contains 25 mathematics problems involving simple “equations” and solutions. The problem that generates the most interest is the calculation of the volume of a truncated pyramid (a square based pyramid with the top portion removed). E.) who claimed it was obtained from another document written about 2000 B. It contains over 80 problems and solutions as well as a table of decomposition of fractions of the form 2/n. E., a natural catastrophe occurred in the area around Crete which, according to the famous Greek archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos, eventually led to the collapse of the mighty Minoan civilization.
The Egyptians seemed to know the formula for this even though this is a difficult formula to derive. Ahmes may well be the earliest “named” person in the history of mathematics. Modern geological research has proved this theory to be correct.